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Cadence

Cadence is the number of steps that you take per minute when running. The ideal cadence is around 85-90 steps per minute, as measured when one foot strikes the ground. So 85-90 pairs of steps over the course of the minute. When you run your feet should be striking directly underneath you. If you overstride, you will land out to the front of your body over the centre of your gravity. Overstriding can cause injury and is not an efficient way of running for long distance events.

A 90 cadence or turnover is roughly three steps taken per second. Since stride rate generally should stay the same through a wide range of running speeds. The only way to increase your speed is to (a) increase your stride length, however you must not overstride, or (b) to increase your leg strength or power so that you have the ability to cover more ground staying within your 85-90 steps.

When you are going up hills you can shorter your stride length even further. By avoiding a lengthy stride you maintain a level of efficiency that will help you to get up the hill much more easily. Likewise running downhill is the same. Resist the temptation to overstride as this is where injuries can occur. You may naturally go to a heel-striking motion but if you can stay on your mid-sole it may lessen the impact on your body.